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Chords and Scales



Chord Names

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Symbol | Name | Scale degrees | Notes in
C
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 5 | Power chord | 1, 5 |
C
G
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | | Major | 1, 3, 5 |
C
E
G
| | m | Minor | 1, m3, 5 |
C
Eb
G
| | sus2 | Suspended 2nd | 1, 2, 5 |
C
D
G
| | sus4 | Suspended 4th | 1, 4, 5 |
C
F
G
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | dim, o | Diminished | 1, m3, b5 |
C
Eb
Gb
| | b5 | Flat 5 | 1, 3, b5 |
C
E
Gb
| | aug, + | Augmented | 1, 3, #5 |
C
E
G#
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 6 | Added 6th | 1, 3, 5, 6 |
C
E
G
A
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 7 | Dominant 7th | 1, 3, 5, m7 |
C
E
G
Bb
| | m7 | Minor 7th | 1, m3, 5, m7 |
C
Eb
G
Bb
| | maj7, Δ | Major 7th | 1, 3, 5, 7 |
C
E
G
B
| | maj6 | Major 6th | 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 |
C
E
G
A
B
| | 7b5 | Dominant 7 Flat 5 | 1, 3, b5, m7 |
C
E
Gb
Bb
| | m7b5, ø | Half-Diminished | 1, m3, b5, m7 |
C
Eb
Gb
Bb
| | m(maj7) | Minor Major 7th | 1, m3, 5, 7 |
C
Eb
G
B
| | dim7, o7 | Diminished 7th | 1, m3, b5, bb7 |
C
Eb
Gb
A
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 9 | Dominant 9th | 1, 3, 5, m7, 9 |
C
E
G
Bb
D
| | maj9 | Major 9th | 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 |
C
E
G
B
D
| | m9 | Minor 9th | 1, m3, 5, m7, 9 |
C
Eb
G
Bb
D
| | 6/9 | 6add9 | 1, 3, 5, 6, 9 |
C
E
G
A
D
| | 7#9 | Hendrix chord | 1, 3, 5, m7, #9 |
C
E
G
Bb
D#
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 11 | Dominant 11th | 1, 3, 5, m7, 9, 11 |
C
E
G
Bb
D
F
| | maj11 | Major 11th | 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 |
C
E
G
B
D
F
| | m11 | Minor 11th | 1, m3, 5, m7, 9, 11 |
C
Eb
G
Bb
D
F
| |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 13 | Dominant 13th | 1, 3, 5, m7, 9, 11, 13 |
C
E
G
Bb
D
F
A
| | maj13 | Major 13th | 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 |
C
E
G
B
D
F
A
| | m13 | Minor 13th | 1, m3, 5, m7, 9, 11, 13 |
C
Eb
G
Bb
D
F
A
| +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
More Stacked 3rds ================= 9th == 2nd on top 11th == 4th on top 13th == 6th on top You may see +/- instead of #/b (e.g. 7b5 = 7-5, or 7#9 = 7+9). Diminished Chords ================= Diminished 7th chords are constructed from four stacked minor thirds (1,m3,b5,bb7). The bb7 in the dim7 chord is equivalent to the 6th degree of the scale. The inversions of these chords overlap, so there are only 3 unique dim7 chords:
Cdim7
=
D#dim7
=
F#dim7
=
Adim7
=
xx1212
C#dim7
=
Edim7
=
Gdim7
=
A#dim7
=
xx2323
Ddim7
=
Fdim7
=
G#dim7
=
Bdim7
=
xx3434
The m7b5 chord (ø) is sometimes called "half-diminished" (because the seventh is not diminished). A half-diminised chord can be played as a minor triad (based on the minor 3rd) over the root note:
Cm7b5
=
Ebm/c
Augmented Chords ================ Augmented 5th chords are constructed from three stacked major thirds (1,3,#5). The inversions of these chords overlap, so there are only 4 unique augmented chords:
C+
=
E+
=
G#+
C#+
=
F+
=
A+
D+
=
F#+
=
A#+
D#+
=
B+
=
G+
An augmented minor triad produces an inverted major triad based on the raised 5th:
Cm+
=
G#/c



Circle of Fifths

+----+ |
C
| +----+ +----+ +----+ |
F
| |
G
| +----+
Am
+----+ +----+
Dm
Em
+----+ |
Bb
| |
D
| +----+ +----+
Gm
Bm
+----+ +----+ |
Eb
|
Cm
F#m
|
A
| +----+ +----+
Fm
C#m
+----+ +----+ |
Ab
| |
E
| +----+
Bbm
G#m
+----+ +----+
Ebm
+----+ |
Db
| |
B
| +----+ +----+ +----+ |
Gb
| +----+
+---------------+ | Notes in key | +--------------------------------------+---------------+ | Degree | Name | Mode |
C
|
Cm
| |--------|----------------|------------|-------|-------| | 1 | Tonic | Ionian |
C
|
C
| | 2 | Supertonic | Dorian |
D
|
D
| | 3 | Mediant | Phrygian |
E
|
Eb
| | 4 | Subdominant | Lydian |
F
|
F
| | 5 | Dominant | Mixolydian |
G
|
G
| | 6 | Submediant | Aeolian |
A
|
Ab
| | 7 | Leading Tone | Locrian |
B
|
Bb
| | 1 | Tonic | Ionian |
C
|
C
| +------------------------------------------------------+


Scales

C
Ionian Scale (Major)

+----------------------------------+ | W | W | h | W | W | W | h | +---------------------------------------+ | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | +---------------------------------------+ |
C
|
D
|
E
|
F
|
G
|
A
|
B
|
C
| +---------------------------------------+ Do - Re - Mi - Fa - Sol- La - Ti - Do! +-------------------------------+ | Harmonised Scale | +-----------+-----------+-------+ | Intervals | Notes | Chord | +---+-----------+-----------+-------+ | 1 | 1 3 5 |
C
E
G
|
C
| | 2 | 2 4 6 |
D
F
A
|
Dm
| | 3 | 3 5 7 |
E
G
B
|
Em
| | 4 | 4 6 1 |
F
A
C
|
F
| | 5 | 5 7 2 |
G
B
D
|
G
| | 6 | 6 1 3 |
A
C
E
|
Am
| | 7 | 7 2 4 |
B
D
F
|
Bdim
| | 1 | 1 3 5 |
C
E
G
|
C
| +---+-----------+-----------+-------+
1
|-7--|-8*-|----|----|----|
|----|-8--|----|-10-|----|
|-7--|----|-9--|-10-|----|
|-7--|----|-9--|-10*|----|
|-7--|-8--|----|-10-|----|
|----|-8*-|----|-10-|----|
2
|-10-|----|----|----|----|
|-10-|----|-12-|-13*|----|
|-10-|----|-12-|----|----|
|-10*|----|-12-|----|-14-|
|-10-|----|-12-|----|-14-|
|-10-|----|-12-|-13-|----|
3
|-12-|----|----|----|----|
|-12-|-13*|----|-15-|----|
|-12-|----|-14-|----|----|
|-12-|----|-14-|-15-|----|
|-12-|----|-14-|-15*|----|
|-12-|-13-|----|-15-|----|
4
|-1--|----|-3--|----|----|
|----|----|-3--|----|-5--|
|----|-2--|----|-4--|-5*-|
|----|-2--|-3--|----|-5--|
|----|-2--|-3*-|----|-5--|
|----|----|-3--|----|-5--|
5
|-5--|----|----|----|----|
|-5--|-6--|----|-8--|----|
|-5*-|----|-7--|----|----|
|-5--|----|-7--|----|-9--|
|-5--|----|-7--|-8--|----|
|-5--|----|-7--|-8*-|----|


Non-Diatonic Chords

Key:
C
Secondary dominants +----+--------+ |
A
| V/ii | |
B
| V/iii | |
C
| V/iv | = I |
D
| V/v | |
E
| V/vi | |
F#
| V/vii | +----+--------+ Secondary subdominants +----+--------+ |
G
| IV/ii | = V |
A
| IV/iii | |
Bb
| IV/iv | |
C
| IV/v | = I |
D
| IV/vi | |
E
| IV/vii | +----+--------+


Fretboard Layouts

Most fretted stringed instruments are chromatic, meaning there are frets at each semitone interval. The guitar octave below will work for any of these. However, the dulcimer is fretted diatonically, meaning that only the diatonic scale is available (and maybe the flattened seventh, if there is a 6+ fret). +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+ | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+ Guitar |
C
|
Db
|
D
|
Eb
|
E
|
F
|
Gb
|
G
|
Ab
|
A
|
Bb
|
B
|
C
| +----+---------+---------+----+---------+---------+----+---------+ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | +---------+---------+----+---------+---------+----+----+----+ | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 6+ | 7 | +----+---------+---------+----+---------+---------+----+----+----+ Dulcimer |
C
|
D
|
E
|
F
|
G
|
A
|
Bb
|
B
|
C
| +----+---------+---------+----+---------+---------+----+----+----+

Diatonic Harmonica Positions

Notes on a
C
harp (including
overblows
and
overdraws
): +----+ |
Bb
| +----+ +--------------+ +--------------+ |
Eb
| |
Eb
|
F#
|
Bb
| |
Eb
|
F#
|
B
| +-------------------------------------------------+ |
C
|
E
|
G
|
C
|
E
|
G
|
C
|
E
|
G
|
C
| blow ↑ +-------------------------------------------------+ | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | draw ↓ +-------------------------------------------------+ |
D
|
G
|
B
|
D
|
F
|
A
|
B
|
D
|
F
|
A
| +-------------------------------------------------+ |
Db
|
F#
|
Bb
|
Db
| |
Ab
|
C#
| |
Ab
|
C#
| +-------------------+ +---------+ +---------+ |
F
|
A
| +---------+ |
Ab
| +----+
+------------------+----------+-----------------+--------+---------------------------------------+ |
C
harp position | Song key | Interval (Mode) | Root | Song example | +------------------+----------+-----------------+--------+---------------------------------------+ | 1st (straight) |
C
| 1 (Ionian) | 1 blow | Mr Tambourine Man | | 2nd (cross) |
G
| 5 (Mixolydian) | 2 draw | Don't Think Twice, It's All Right | | 3rd (slant) |
Dm
| 2 (Dorian) | 1 draw | The River | | 4th |
Am
| 6 (Aeolian) | 6 draw | All Along The Watchtower | | 5th |
Em
| 3 (Phrygian) | 2 blow | As I Went Out One Morning | | 6th |
Bdim
| 7 (Locrian) | 3 draw | ??? | | 12th |
F
| 4 (Lydian) | 5 draw | Lily, Rosemary and the Jack of Hearts | +------------------+----------+-----------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+-----------------------------------------+ | Harp Position | +----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ | Song key | 1st | 2nd | 3rd | 4th | 5th | 12th | +----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ |
C
|
C
|
F
| | | |
G
| +----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ |
Am
| | |
G
|
C
|
F
| | +----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+


Tonewheel Organ Settings

* * * * * +-----------------------------------------------------+ | 16' | 5½' | 8' | 4' | 2⅔' | 2' | 1⅗' | 1⅓' | 1' | +-----------------------------------------------------+ | I | V | I | I | V | I | III | V | I | +-----------------------------------------------------+ |
C
|
G
|
C
|
C
|
G
|
C
|
E
|
G
|
C
| +-----------------------------------------------------+
Classic
88 8200 000
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